Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
A large number of inventions require years of arduous
research and development
before they are perfected. For instance, Thomas Edison had to make more than 1,000
attempts to invent the incandescent light bulb before he finally succeeded. History is replete
with numerous other examples of people trying, yet failing, to make inventions before they
eventually succeeded. Yet some inventions have come about riot through hard work but
simply by accident.
In most cases. when someone unintentionally invented something, the inventor was
attempting to create something else. For example, in the 1930s, chemist Roy Plunkett was
attempting to make a new substance that could be used to refrigerate items. He mixed some
chemicals together. Then, he put them into a pressurized container and cooled the mixture.
By the time his experiment was complete, he had a new invention, it was not a new substance
that could be used for refrigeration though. Instead, he had invented Teflon, which is today
most commonly used to make nonstick pots and pans. Similarly, decades earlier, John
Pemberton was a pharmacist in Atlanta, Georgia. He was attempting to create a tonic that
people could use whenever they had headaches. While he was not successful in that
, he managed to invent Coca-Cola, the world-famous carbonated soft drink.
Scientists have also made crucial discoveries by accident when they were conducting
experiments. In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, an antibiotic, in this manner.
He discovered some mold growing in a dish with some bacteria, he noticed that the bacteria
seemed to be avoiding the mold. When he investigated further, he determined some of the
many useful properties of penicillin, which has saved millions of lives over the past few
decades. Likewise, in 1946, scientist Percy Spencer was conducting an experiment with
microways. He had a candy bar in his pocket, and he noticed that it suddenly melted. He
investigated and learned the reason why that had happened. Soon afterward, he built a device
that could utilize microwaves to heat food: the microwave oven.
(2.5 points) Which title best summarizes the main idea of the passage?